Gandhi Ji’s life important years and eventsमोहनदास गांधी: महत्वपूर्ण साल और घटनाए

Important years

1869 - October 2, Mohandas Gandhi was born in Porbandar, India

1888: Sailed from Bombay for England to study law.

1891: Returned to India after being called to the Bar. Began to practise law in Bombay and Rajkot.

1893 April: Sailed for South Africa to become lawyer for an Indian firm. Found himself subjected to colour discrimination

1894 May: Organised the Natal Indian Congress.

1899: Organised Indian Ambulance Corps for the British in the Boer war.

1901 : With the family embakked for India.

1901-02: Travelled extensively in India, attended Indian National Congress meeting in Calcutta and opened law office in Bombay.

1902: Returned to South Africa at the request of the Indian community.

1904: Established the weekly journal 'Indian Opinion', Organised Phoenix Farm near Durban.

1906 September: First 'satyagraha' campaign in protest against proposed Asiatic ordinance directed against Indian immigrants in Transvaal.

1907 June: Organised 'satyagraha' against compulsory registration of Asiatics (The Black Act).

1908 January: Stood trial for instigating 'satyagraha' and was sentenced to two months imprisonment in Johannesburg jail (his first imprisonment). Summoned to consu1.t General Smuts at Pretoria; compromise reached; was released from jail.

1908 February: Attacked and wounded by Indian extremist for settlement with Smuts.

1908 August: After Smuts broke agreement, second ' satyagraha ' campaign began with bonfire of registration certificates

1909 February: Sentenced to three months imprisonment in Volksrust and Pretoria jails.

1909 June: Sailed for England to present Indians' case.

1910 May: Established Tolstoy Farm near Johannesburg.

1913 September: Helped campaign against nullification of marriages not celebrated according to Christian rites. Third 'satyagraha' campaign. Led 2,000 Indian from New Castle across Transvaal border.

1913 November: Arrested for third time in four days.

1913 December: Released unconditionally in expectation of a compromise.

1914 July: Returned to India, leaving South Africa for ever.

1915 May: Established Satyagraha Ashram near Ahmedabad.

1917: Moved Ashram to new site on Sabarrnati River, Led successful. 'satyagraha' campaign for rights of peasants on indigo plantations in Champaran. Defied order to leave area in April, was arrested at Motihari and tried, but case was withdrawn.

1918 February: Led strike of mill workers at Ahmedabad. Mill owners agreed to arbitration after his three-day fast (his first fast in India).

1918 March: Led 'satyagraha' for peasants in Kheda.

1918 April: Organised nationwide hartal suspension of 3 activity for a day against the Rowlat Act. Fasted at Sabarmati for three days in penitence for violence and suspended 'satyagraha' campaign which he called a 'Himalayan miscalculation' because people were not disciplined enough. Became Editor of English weekly 'Young India' and Gujarati weekly 'Navajivan'.

1920 April: Elected president of All India Home Rule League. Successfully urged resolutions for a 'satyagraha' campaign of non-cooperation.

1921: Resolved to wear only a loin cloth to propagate homespun cotton and to signify his identification with the people. Mass civil disobedience, thousands went to jail. Gandhi invested with 'sole executive authority' on behalf of Indian Congress.

1922: Suspended mass disobedience because of violence at Chori Chawra and undertook five-day fast of penance at Bardoli. Arrested at Sabarmati on charge of sedittion for articles in 'Young India'. Pleaded guilty in a famous statement at the 'great trial' in Ahmedabad before Judge Broomfield. Sentenced to six years' imprisonment in Yervada jail.

1929: Arrested for burning foreign cloth in Calcutta and fined one rupee.

1929 December: - Congress session at Lahore voted for complete independence and a boycott of the legislature. January 26 proposed as Independence day. Third all-India 'satyagraha' campaign. .

1930 March 12: Set out from Sabarmati with 79 volunteers on historic Salt March 200 miles to sea at Dandi.

1930 April 6: Broke salt law by picking a handful of salt up at seashore. Arrested by armed policemen at Karadi and imprisoned in Yervada jail without trial. One hundred thousand persons arrested.

1931 January: Released unconditionally with 30 other Congress leaders.

1931 March: Gandhi and Erwin (Viceroy) Pact signed, which ended civil disobedience.

1931 August: Sailed from Bombay for the Second Round Table Conference in London.

1931 December: Returned to India. Authorised by Congress to renew 'satyagraha' campaign (fourth nation-wide effort).

1932 January: Arrested in Bombay with Sardar Pate and detained without trial at Yervada prison.

1932 September 20: Began 'fast unto death' while in prison in protest against British action giving separate electorate to untouchables.

1932 September 26: Concluded "fast" in the presence of Rabindranath Tagore after the British accepted 'Yervada Tact'..

1933: Began weekly publication of 'Harijan' in place of 'Young India' .

1933 July: Disbanded Sabarmati Ashram which then became centre for removal of untouchability.

1933 November: Began ten-month tour of India to help end untouchability.

1934 October: Launched A11 India Village Industries Association

1940 October: Launched limited, individual civil disobedience campaign against Britain’s refusal to allow Indians to express their opinions regarding World War 11. 23,000 persons imprisoned within a year.

1942: Met with Sir Stafford Cripps in New Delhi but called his proposals 'a postdated cheque'; these were ultimately rejected by the Congress. Congress passed 'Quit India Resolution' (8 August)--the final nationwide 'satyagraha campaign' with Gandhi as the leader.
Arrested with other Congress leaders and Kasturba and imprisoned in Aga Khan Palace, near Poona.

1943 February 10: Began fast at Aga Khan Palace to end deadlock between Viceroy and Indian leaders.

1944 February 22: Kasturba died in detention at Aga Khan Palace at the age of 74.

1944 May 6: After decline in health, was released unconditionally+ from detention (this was his last imprisonment; he had spent 2,338 days in jail during his life-time).

1946: Began four month tour of 49 villages in East Bengal to quell communal rioting over Muslim representation in provisional government.

1947: Toured Bihar to lessen Hindu-Muslim tensions. Began conference in New Delhi with Lord Mountbatten
and Jinnah.

1947 May: Opposed Congress decision to accept division of country into India and Pakistan. Fasted and prayed to combat riots in Calcutta as India was partitioned and granted independence. Visited Delhi and other neighbouring areas to stop rioting and to visit camps for refugees.

1946 onwards: Gandhiji's efforts were concentrated on effecting Hindu-Muslim accord. Hindu-Muslim riots had broken out all over India, ever since the League resident Jinnah, rejected the Cabinet Mission Plan and proclaimed August 16, 1946 as Direct Action Day. 

It was never clarified what Direction really involved. But the Muslims responded to this call with vengeance. The great Calcutta killings of August 16/18 were the first bitter harvest of the Direct Action Day, Gandhiji visited many of these areas Noakhali for instance to restore communal harmony

1948: Gandhiji undertook a fast for 5 days to bring about communal unity. On 30 January, while holding a prayer meeting at Birfa House, Delhi, Gandhiji was shot dead by a Hindu fanatic Nathurarn Vinayak Godse, who was deadly opposed to Gandhiji's efforts to bring about Hindu-Muslim amity.

एक बैरिस्टर बनने के लिए इंग्लैंड को प्रस्थान 1888

बैरिस्टर बनने के बाद भारत लौटने के लिए इंग्लैंड से प्रस्थान 1891

दक्षिण अफ्रीका के लिए रवाना हुए 1893

दक्षिण अफ्रीका में फीनिक्स फार्म की स्थापना 1904

दक्षिण अफ्रीका से भारत आए 1915

साबरमती आश्रम स्थापित 1915

चंपारण में इंडिगो श्रमिकों के लिए आंदोलन (यह घटना गांधी जी की राजनीति में प्रविष्टि के रूप में चिह्नित) 1917

गैर सहयोग आंदोलन शुरू किया 1920

चौरी चौरा की घटना के कारण गैर सहयोग आंदोलन वापस लिया 1922

नमक पर कर कानून के खिलाफ विरोध प्रदर्शन, दांडी मार्च आयोजित 1930

द्वितीय गोलमेज सम्मेलन में भाग लिया 1931

सेवाग्राम, वर्धा के निकट एक गांव में बस गए 1936

अंग्रेजों को भारत छोड़ने की अपील 1942

नाथूराम गोडसे द्वारा हत्या 1948

महात्मा गांधी द्वारा किए गए महत्वपूर्ण अनशन:

1918, 15-17 मार्च अहमदाबाद मिल मजदूरों की कम मजदूरी के विरोध में अनशन

1919, 13-15 अप्रैल जलियाँवाला बाग नरसंहार के लिए प्रायश्चित के रूप में अनशन । यह अनशन नरसंहार के परिणाम स्वरूप मुंबई, अहमदाबाद और अन्य स्थानों में हुए दंगों के लिए प्रायश्चित भी था ।

1922, 12-16 फ़रवरी चौरी चौरा नरसंहार के लिए प्रायश्चित के रूप मे अनशन ।

1932, 20-25 सितम्बर रामसे मैकडोनाल्ड के सांप्रदायिक निर्णय के खिलाफ

1943, 10-28 फ़रवरी भारत छोड़ो आंदोलन के बाद देश मे हुई गड़बड़ी के लिए कांग्रेस पार्टी को दोषी करार देने के सरकार के प्रयास के विरोध में उपवास

1948, 13-17 जनवरी कलकत्ता में हुए सांप्रदायिक दंगों के खिलाफ विरोध प्रदर्शन और प्रायश्चित करने के लिए