Must Read Articles
3 Reading Comprehension Practice Sets
Read the following passage carefully and answer the questions given below it. Certain words are printed in bold to help you to locate them while answering some of the questions:
The current global food situation is very serious and hence, we need to understand the reasons for such a dramatic increase in food prices in a short period. It is argued that increases in energy costs are resulting in cost push inflation but the contribution of energy costs to overall costs in agriculture may not explain the huge increase in food prices. Related to the current elevated energy prices, there has been a diversion of corn and edible oils to bio-fuels, which is significantly influenced by policy mandates. Very clearly this diversion to bio-fuels is a policy induced new reality, which coincided with price escalation in precisely those products and hence, is noteworthy.
The financialisation of commodity trade and current extraordinary conditions in global financial markets could have influenced the spurt in prices. The recent reductions in interest rates in the U.S. and the injection of liquidity have resulted in investors seeking new avenues such as commodity markets, in view of the turbulence in financial markets and the low returns in treasuries. The relatively easy liquidity and low interest rates, by themselves, make holding of inventories attractive and thus induce greater volatility in commodity markets. The weakening of the U.S. dollar is also advanced as a reason for the recent volatility in commodity markets, including food items. It is evident that this phenomenon is now also coinciding with the across the board rise in food prices.
In brief, while there are demand and supply side pressures on food items, there is considerable merit in the argument that the recent extraordinary increases in food prices are closely linked to public policy responses to high energy costs in advanced economies, and the turbulence in financial markets and financial institutions. It is said that the impact of such policy induced diversion of food to bio-fuels is significant at this juncture and reflects a preference to fill the fuel tanks of automobiles rather than fill the empty stomachs of people. Similarly, it is sometimes held that the weight accorded to financial stability in public policy may now be at the expense of stability in real sector - especially of sensitive commodities like food. At the same time, there is a general consensus that public policy in regard to food in many economies around the world has not provided adequate incentive to farmers to increase the supply of food and other agricultural products to comfortably match the growing demand over the medium term.
Q.1 In what way are bio-fuels responsible for the increasing cost of food?
(A) It is a policy mandated to use bio-fuel in place of petroleum products especially in developing countries.
(B) Certain essential food commodities are being used for manufacturing alternative fuels.
(C) The low cost of bio-fuels has created fluctuation in prices of other agricultural commodities.
(1) A only (2) B only (3) C only (4) A and B only (5) None of these
Q. 2. Which of the following situation(s) has/have prompted investors to look towards commodity markets?
(A) Dip in rates of interest in the U.S.
(B) Easy Liquidity.
(C) Volatility in commodity prices.
(1) A and B only (2) Band C only (3) A and C only (4) All the three (5) None of these
Q. 3. The passage lays emphasis on which of the following central theme(s)?
(A) The abysmally throwaway prices offered for food commodities.
(B) The worldwide acute shortage of food commodities.
(C) Promoting the use of bio-fuel for automobiles.
(1) A only (2) B only (3) C only (4) All the three (5) None of these
Q. 4. Which of the following statements is FALSE in the context of the passage?
(A) Unusual conditions in global financial markets have aggravated the food price.
(B) No government would prefer fuelling vehicles to feeding the hungry.
(C)Maintenance of financial stability in public policy will be at the cost of stability in the real sector.
(1) A and B only (2) B and C only (3) B only (4) C only (5) None of these
Q. 5. Which of the following shows a cause-effect relationship between its two components?
(1) Reduction in interest rates and abundance of food commodities
(2) Reduction in energy prices and increase in food commodity prices
(3) Turbulence in financial markets and escalation in production of food commodities
(4) Dipping of U.S. dollar value and volatility in commodity markets
(5) Injection of liquidity and the drop in investor confidence
Q. 6. Which of the following statements is TRUE in the context of the passage?
(1) Commodity markets have become erratic due to easy liquidity and low interest rate
(2) Governments of many countries have begun paying better prices for food commodities to ensure their farmers are taken care of
(3) Farmers in developing countries have to compulsorily produce a certain quantity of bio-fuels annually
(4) The financialisation of commodity trade has resulted in a dip in prices of food products
(5) The weakening of other currencies against the US dollar has resulted in high fuel prices
Q. 7. Which of the following best explains the phrase “this phenomenon” as used in the fourth paragraph of the passage?
(1) Volatility in commodity markets which has led to hoarding
(2) Escalating food prices caused by high interest rates
(3) Easy liquidity because of lack of investment in America
(4) Weakening of the US dollar and consequent variability in commodity markets
(5) Fluctuation in energy prices and outdated public policy
Q. 8. Which of the following can be inferred from the contents of the passage?
(A) At present the demand for food items exceeds the supply.
(B) Fuel production has been given higher priority than caring for the millions who are starving.
(C) Farmers have not been motivated to increase their production of food.
(1) A and B only (2) Band C only (3) A and C only (4) None of these (5) All A B & C
Q. 9. Which of the following can be a remedy of the global situation mentioned in the passage?
(A) Reducing the production of cars and thereby the demand for energy.
(B) Inducing farmers to increase their food and other agricultural produce.
(C) Increasing the prices of food items to compensate farmers for their losses.
(1) A only (2) A and B only (3) B only (4) B and C only (5) None of these
Questions (10 – 12): Choose the word which is most OPPOSITE in meaning of the word given in bold as used in the passage.
Q. 10. consensus
(1) deviant (2) disagreement (3) dejection (4) denial (5) dissuasion
Q. 11. elevated
(1) raised (2) stabilised (3) inclined (4) fallen (5) slanted
Q. 12. volatility
(1) agitation (2) effervescence (3) optimism (4) disparity (5) inactivity
Q. 1. (2)
Q. 2. (1)
Q. 3. (1)
Q. 4. (4)
Q. 5. (4)
Q. 6. (1)
Q. 7. (4)
Q. 8. (3)
Q. 9. (3)
Q. 10. (2)
Q. 11. (4)
Q. 12. (5)
Reading Passage - 2
We have witnessed several disasters in recent times, some natural others man made. The frequency of such calamities has inured us and deadened our collective sensitivity, but that does not reduce the enormity of the personal tragedy of each victim's family and community. The economic loss is only secondary to the human suffering, but is also substantial. The Government whether State or Central has standardized its response. This consists of reacting late, blaming others, visits by VIPs, announcing a relief package including compensation for those affected and then forgetting all about it. There seems to be little attempt at drawing lessons from each disaster, storing the knowledge for future use, long term planning for possible preemptive action. Preparedness for disasters thus falls short of what is possible using today's technologies.
Floods in many parts of India like the states of Bihar and Assam are a yearly phenomenon. Yet the government seems to be caught by surprise year after year. It is obvious that tarpaulins, vaccines, medicines, clothes, satellite phones, large numbers of doctors and paramedical staff etc. will be needed as will boats and buses for evacuation. This is known to all those who have combated emergencies yet the non-availability of these essential services and commodities occurs. Worse the organisational structure and mechanisms for dealing with disasters are lethargic and ill defined.
The National Disaster Management Agency, set up a short time ago being a central government agency has limitations relating
to infringing the jurisdiction of states. It could have aggregated and disseminated experiences and knowledge, stocked many of the essential items required in an emergency or worked with agencies to ensure sufficient stocks, but hasn't. While the reaction to major disasters is dismal, the response to emergencies like accidents is equally sad. Victims lie unattended since passersby are wary of getting caught in a labyrinthine of police and legal systems. The resulting delay in treatment converts injuries into deaths. of late, a unique and free service to provide assistance in emergency cases is operational. Emergency Management and Research Institute (EMRI) is a professionally managed operation - initiated by the vision and a grant from Ramalinga Raju. The service, which is a successful example of public private partnership, is likely to become operational in a few states in the near future. Given the sad failure of conventional government organizations in handling disasters, it is time we looked at the PPP model as an alternative without the government seeking in any way to abdicate its responsibility. While the state provides the funding, private organizations will provide the drive, professionalism, competent management and output linked
efficiency of a good corporate organization. Combining the sensitivity and purpose of an NGO with private entrepreneurial drive to handle disasters together is thus a worthwhile challenge for both corporate and the government.
Q. 1. Which of the following is NOT true in the context of the passage?
(1) Man made disasters occur more frequently than natural disasters.
(2) The Public Private Participation model has been successful in handling emergencies.
(3) Floods occur every year in some Indian states.
(4) Analysis of previous disasters will help us cope with future ones.
(5) People have become indifferent to disasters.
Q. 2. Which of the following has been the customary government reaction to disasters?
(A) It has handled disasters with utmost sensitivity.
(B) It responds in a professional, efficient manner which has been standardized over time.
(C) It ensures monetary aid reaches those afflicted by disasters.
(1) Only A (2) Only B (3) Both A & B (4) Only C (5) None of these
Q. 3. Why do bystanders not help accident victims?
(1) They lack the necessary medical knowledge.
(2) It is the responsibility of the driver of the vehicle.
(3) Cumbersome police formalities
(4) Medical attention via satellite phones can be provided promptly.
(5) None of these
Q. 4. Which of the following can be inferred about the National Disaster Management Agency?
(A) It has substantial experience in dealing with disasters.
(B) It has been successful in sharing information with other disaster management agencies.
(C) It disburses funds to disaster management organizations to procure emergency stocks.
(1) None (2) All A, B & C (3) Only A (4) Both A & B (5) None of these
Q. 5. Why is there a lack of medical care at disaster sites?
(1) Inadequate transportation facilities
(2) Lack of disaster management training for medical staff
(3) Loss of medical supplies due to dangerous conditions
(4) Safety of medical staff cannot be assured
(5) None of these
Q. 6. What does the author consider "a worthwhile challenge for both corporate and the government"?
(1) Governments should gradually transfer disaster management to corporate.
(2) Their working together to manage disasters competently keeping public interests in mind
(3) Reducing the incidence of man made disasters
(4) Mitigating the financial losses sustained during natural disasters
(5) None of these
Q. 7. According to the passage, which of the following will be the likely impact/s of the public private
Participation model of disaster management?
(A) Politicians will not be able to interfere with relief efforts.
(B) Aid will be effectively deployed.
(C) Professional approach to disaster management efforts.
(1) Only A (2) Both B & C (3) All A, B & C (4) Only C (5) None of these
Q. 8. Which of the following has/have been the impact/s of consistently occurring natural disasters?
(A) The Government has initiated a long term planning process to handle them.
(B) Use of technology in combating disasters has increased in India.
(C) The Government is not caught unawares when such disasters occur.
(1) None (2) Only B (3) Both A & C (4) Both A & B (5) All A, B & C
Q. 9. Which of the following is TRUE about EMRI?
(1) It is run by a philanthropist.
(2) It has widespread operations all over India.
(3) The government has no say in its functioning.
(4) EMRI is a nongovernmental organization.
(5) It is an emergency management service.
Q. 10. What is the author's view on the government's current reaction to natural disasters?
(1) The government has not been able to handle disasters and should seek foreign aid.
(2) A Central Government agency should be set up to speed up coordination in rescue efforts.
(3) It has failed to utilize donations effectively to provide relief.
(4) The government is apathetic and has not managed to handle disasters effectively.
(5) None of these
Questions (11 – 13): Choose the word which is most similar in meaning to the word printed in bold as used in
Q. 11. pre-emptive (1) widespread (2) seizing (3) restrained (4) preventive (5) commanding
Q. 12. frequency (1) sound (2) habit (3) recurrence (4) average (5) occasion
Q. 13. infringing (1) breaking (2) violating (3) provoking (4) hampering (5) disobeying
Q. 1. (1)
Q. 2. (4)
Q. 3. (3)
Q. 4. (5)
Q. 5. (5)
Q. 6. (5)
Q. 7. (2)
Q. 8. (1)
Q. 9. (3)
Q. 10. (4)
Q. 11. (4)
Q. 12. (3)
Q. 13. (5)
>>>> Passage 3
Read the following passage carefully and the questions given below it. Certain words/ phrases are given in bold to help you locate them while answering some of the questions.
China’s rising power is based on its remarkable economic success. Shanghai’s overall economy is currently growing at around 13%per year, thus doubling in size every five or six years. Everywhere there are start-ups, innovations, and young entrepreneurs hungry for profits. In a series of high level meetings between Chinese and African officials, the advice that the African leaders received from the Chinese was sound, and more practical than they typically get from the World Bank. Chinese officials stress the crucial role of public investments, especially in agriculture and infrastructure, to lay the basis for private sector-led growth. In a hungry and poor rural economy, as China was in the 1970s and as most of Africa is today, a key starting point is to raise farm productivity. Farmers need the benefits of fertilizer, irrigation and high-yield seeds, all of which were a core part of China’s economical takeoff. Two other equally critical investments are also needed: roads and electricity, without which there cannot be a modern economy. Farmers might be able to increase their output, but it wont be able to reach the cities, and the cities won’t be able to provide the countryside with inputs. The government has taken pains to ensure that the electricity grids and transportation networks reach every village in China.
China is prepared to help Africa in substantial ways in agriculture, roads, power, health and education. And that is not an empty boast. Chinese leaders are prepared to share new high-yield rice varieties, with their African counterparts and, all over Africa, China is financing and, constructing basic infrastructure. This illustrates what is wrong with the World Bank. The World Bank has often forgotten the most basic lessons of development, preferring to lecture the poor and force them to privatize basic infrastructure, which is untenable, rather than to help the poor to invest in infrastructure and other crucial sectors. The Bank’s failure began in the early 1980s when under the ideological sway of then American President and British Prime Minister it tried to get Africa and other poor regions to cut back or close down government investments and services. For 25 years, the bank tried to get governments out of agriculture, leaving impoverished peasants to fend for themselves. The result hits been a disaster in Africa, with farm productivity stagnant for decades. The bank also pushed for privatization of national health systems, water utilities, and road and power networks, and has grossly under financed these critical sectors. This extreme free-market ideology, also called “structural adjustment”, went against the practical lessons of development successes in, China and the rest or Asia. Practical development strategy recognizes that public investments— in agriculture, health, education, and infrastructure—are necessary complements to private investments. The World Bank has instead wrongly seen such vital public investments as an enemy of private sector development. Whenever the bank’s ideology failed, it has blamed the poor for corruption, mismanagement, or lack of initiative. Instead of focusing its attention on helping the poorest countries to improve their infrastructure, there has been a crusade against corruption. The good news is that African governments are getting the message on how to spur economic growth and are getting crucial help from China and other partners that are less wedded to extreme free-market ideology than the World Bank. They have declared their intention to invest in infrastructure, agriculture modernization, public health and education. It is clear the Bank can regain its relevance only if it becomes practical once again, by returning its focus to financing public investments in priority sectors. If that happens, the Bank can still do justice to the bold vision of a world of shared prosperity that prompted its creation after World War II.
Q. 1. The author’s main objective in writing the passage is to
(1) make a case for the closure of the World Bank since it promotes US interests over those of other countries.
(2) illustrate how China can play a more concrete role in Africa.
(3) criticize the World Bank for playing a crucial role in China’s development but neglecting Africa.
(4) recommend that China adopt the guidelines of the World Bank to sustain growth.
(5) use China’s success as an example of the changes required in World Bank ideology.
Q. 2. What advice have African leaders received from their Chinese counterparts?
(A) Focus primarily on innovation, start-ups and urban development.
(B) To ensure all citizens benefit from economic development, investment in crucial sectors should come from the government, not the private sector.
(C) Improve agricultural output through government investment to stimulate economic growth.
(1) None (2) Only (C) (3) Only (B) (4) Both (A) & (B) (5) None of these
Q. 3. What effect has the World Bank policy had on African nations?
(1) The African government has restricted private sector investment in agriculture.
(2) Africa has focused more on health and education rather than on agriculture.
(3) The agriculture sector in these countries is not as productive as it could be.
(4) US and Britain have volunteered substantial aid to Africa as Africa has complied with World Bank ideology.
(5) None of these
Q. 4. What is the difference in the Chinese and World Bank approach to development?
(1) Unlike the World Bank, China favors the public sector and restricts private sector participation in crucial sectors.
(2) Contrary to China’s strategy of dependence on the private sector, the World Bank pressurizes governments to take the lead in investing in agriculture.
(3) While the World Bank has focused on agriculture, China’s priority has been rooting out corruption so that investment in infrastructure is utilized appropriately.
(4) The Chinese government has retained control over essential services like transport while the World Bank favors private sector involvement.
(5) None of these
Q. 5. What is China’s view in the development of the transportation and power networks?
(1) Development in these sectors is not as important as investing in agriculture.
(2) Resources need to be diverted from the rural to the urban areas to meet the needs of the growing population in cities.
(3) The government should be solely responsible for developing these services so all citizens have access to them.
(4) It is more important to develop and maintain transportation networks and power grids in rural areas.
(5) None of these
Q. 6. Which of the following cannot be said about structural adjustment?
(1) It is the World Bank’s free market ideology adapted by Asian countries.
(2) Under this strategy public sector investment in priority sectors is discouraged.
(3) As a development strategy it has failed in Africa.
(4) With this strategy there has been a lack of adequate investment in critical sectors.
(5) It is an ideology advocated by the World Bank which needs to be modified to facilitate economic growth.
Q. 7. Which of the following is NOT true in the context of the passage?
(A) China’s involvement in Africa so far has been restricted to advising its leaders.
(B) The World Bank was created by the US and Britain for the sole purpose of furthering their interests.
(C) China’s economy was once in the same state as many African countries are today.
(1) None (2) Only (B) (3) Only (A) (4) Both (A) & (B) (5) None of these
Q. 8. What has/have been the outcome/s of Shanghai’s economy prospering?
(A) The World Bank has changed its development strategy.
(B) China’s importance globally has been enhanced.
(C) Rural areas are being neglected to promote development of cities.
(1) Only (B) (2) Both (A) & (B) (3) Both (B) & (C) (4) All (A), (B) & (C) (5) None of these
Q. 9. Why is the author optimistic about Africa’s future?
(1) The World Bank has committed itself to invest huge sums in Africa’s development.
(2) Africa has decided to adopt a structural adjustment ideology which has benefited many nations.
(3) Africa has committed itself to adopting China’s strategy for economic growth.
(4) China has urged the World Bank to waive the interest on its loans to Africa.
(5) None of these
Q. 10. What advice has the author given the World Bank?
(1) Support China’s involvement in developing Africa
(2) Reduce the influence of the US and Britain in its functioning
(3) Adopt a more practical ideology of structural adjustment
(4) Change its ideology to one encouraging both public and private sector investment in basic infrastructure
(5) Focus on fighting corruption rather than interfering in the governance of developing countries
Q. (11 – 13): Choose the word which is most nearly the SAME in meaning as the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
Q. 11. sway
(1) fluctuate (2) influence (3) govern (4) dependence (5) unsteady
Q. 12. core
(1) centre (2) heart (3) adequate (4) intermediate (5) essential
Q. 13. stress
(1) highlight (2) strain (3) taxing (4) tension (5) emphasis
Q. (14 – 15): Choose the word which is most OPPOSITE in meaning of the word printed in bold as used in the passage.
Q. 14. untenable
(1) viable (2) unsound (3) consistent (4) superior (5) attractive
Q. 15. empty
(1) foil (2) objective (3)meaningful (4) occupied (5) intelligent
Q. 1. (5)
Q. 2. (5)
Q. 3. (3)
Q. 4. (5)
Q. 5. (4)
Q. 6. (1)
Q. 7. (4)
Q. 8. (1)
Q. 9. (3)
Q. 10. (4)
Q. 11. (2)
Q. 12. (5)
Q. 13. (1)
Q. 14. (1)
Q. 15. (3)
3 समझ पढ़ना प्रैक्टिस सेट
निम्नलिखित बीतने को ध्यान से पढ़ें और सवाल यह नीचे दिए गए जवाब। कुछ शब्दों को बोल्ड में मुद्रित कर रहे हैं, जबकि कुछ सवालों के जवाब देने में आप उन्हें पता लगाने के लिए मदद करने के लिए:
मौजूदा वैश्विक भोजन की स्थिति बहुत गंभीर है और इसलिए, हम एक छोटी सी अवधि में खाद्य पदार्थों की कीमतों में इस तरह के एक नाटकीय वृद्धि के लिए कारणों को समझने की जरूरत है। यह तर्क दिया जाता है कि ऊर्जा की लागत में वृद्धि लागत धक्का मुद्रास्फीति में जिसके परिणामस्वरूप कर रहे हैं, लेकिन कृषि क्षेत्र में कुल लागत के लिए ऊर्जा की लागत का योगदान खाद्य पदार्थों की कीमतों में भारी वृद्धि की व्याख्या नहीं कर सकते। वर्तमान ऊंचा ऊर्जा कीमतों से संबंधित है, वहाँ जैव ईंधन के लिए मक्का और खाद्य तेलों के एक मोड़ है, जो काफी नीति जनादेश से प्रभावित है किया गया है। बहुत स्पष्ट रूप से जैव ईंधन को यह मोड़ एक नीति प्रेरित नई वास्तविकता है, जो ठीक उन उत्पादों में मूल्य वृद्धि के साथ हुई और इसलिए भी उल्लेखनीय है।
वस्तु व्यापार और वैश्विक वित्तीय बाजारों में मौजूदा असाधारण परिस्थितियों के financialisation की कीमतों में उछाल प्रभावित हो सकता था। अमेरिका और तरलता के इंजेक्शन में ब्याज दरों में कटौती के हाल के वित्तीय बाजारों में उथल-पुथल और भंडारों में कम रिटर्न को देखते हुए इस तरह के जिंस बाजार के रूप में नए रास्ते, मांग निवेशकों में हुई है। अपेक्षाकृत आसान तरलता और कम ब्याज दरों, अपने आप से, माल की होल्डिंग आकर्षक बनाने के लिए और इस तरह जिंस बाजार में अधिक से अधिक अस्थिरता प्रेरित। अमेरिकी डॉलर के कमजोर भी जिंस बाजार, खाद्य वस्तुओं सहित हाल ही में अस्थिरता के लिए एक कारण के रूप में उन्नत है। यह स्पष्ट है कि इस घटना को अब भी खाद्य पदार्थों की कीमतों में बोर्ड भर में वृद्धि के साथ coinciding जाता है।
संक्षेप में, जबकि वहाँ खाद्य वस्तुओं पर मांग और आपूर्ति पक्ष के दबाव में हैं, इस तर्क में काफी योग्यता है कि खाद्य पदार्थों की कीमतों में हाल ही में असाधारण बढ़ जाती है बारीकी से उन्नत अर्थव्यवस्थाओं में उच्च ऊर्जा लागत के लिए सार्वजनिक नीति प्रतिक्रियाओं से जुड़े होते हैं, और वित्तीय में अशांति है बाजारों और वित्तीय संस्थानों। यह कहा जाता है कि इस तरह की नीति प्रेरित जैव ईंधन के लिए भोजन के मोड़ के प्रभाव को इस मोड़ पर महत्वपूर्ण है और एक प्राथमिकता ऑटोमोबाइल के ईंधन टैंक को भरने के बजाय लोगों के खाली पेट भरने के लिए दर्शाता है। इसी प्रकार, यह कभी कभी आयोजित किया जाता है कि वजन सार्वजनिक नीति में वित्तीय स्थिरता के लिए दी अब वास्तविक क्षेत्र में स्थिरता की कीमत पर हो सकता है - विशेष रूप से भोजन की तरह संवेदनशील वस्तुओं की। एक ही समय में, वहाँ एक आम सहमति है कि दुनिया भर के कई अर्थव्यवस्थाओं में भोजन के संबंध में सार्वजनिक नीति भोजन और अन्य कृषि उत्पादों आराम से मध्यम अवधि में बढ़ती मांग को मैच के लिए की आपूर्ति बढ़ाने के लिए किसानों को पर्याप्त प्रोत्साहन नहीं प्रदान की गई है ।
Q.1 किस तरह से भोजन की बढ़ती लागत के लिए जिम्मेदार जैव ईंधन रहे हैं?
(क) यह एक नीति विशेष रूप से विकासशील देशों में पेट्रोलियम उत्पादों के स्थान पर जैव ईंधन का उपयोग करने के लिए अनिवार्य है।
(ख) कुछ आवश्यक खाद्य वस्तुओं वैकल्पिक ईंधन के निर्माण के लिए इस्तेमाल किया जा रहा है।
(सी) जैव ईंधन की कम लागत के अन्य कृषि जिंसों की कीमतों में उतार-चढ़ाव पैदा कर दी है।